How Turkey entered World War I?

Updated: Jun 7, 2019

Read first : How the initial World war strategy of Germany went wrong?


Turkey(Ottoman Empire) entered World War I as a German ally which Germany considered a great success in maintaining diplomacy.


Ottoman Empire:

  • Empire created by Turkish tribes in 15th and 16th centuries that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world.

  • Southeast Europe, West Asia, and North Africa was under Ottoman Empire between 15th and early 20th centuries.

  • Early 20th century saw a raise of many reform groups that lead a revolutionary movement to end the Ottoman Empire rule to form a constitutional government.

  • The revolution was started and led by group of students who were proudly called as "Young Turks". Since 1909 Turkey(Ottoman) had been under the control of the Young Turks.

The Alliance:

Turkey(Ottoman) made an alliance with the central powers for 2 reasons.

- Russia was a potential threat to Turkey as they had interests in capturing Turkish straits.

- Enver Pasa, the leader of the Young Turks saw alliance with Germany as the best way of serving Turkey's interests.

  • Turkey signed a secret treaty with Germany on 2 August, 1914.

  • Two German warships were provided to Turkey.

  • Ottoman entered World War I in late October by launching a raid in the Black sea and destroying Russian ports.

  • Russia and its allies declared war on Turkey in November 1914. But Turkey was not actually ready for war. They had poor communication system, damaged road and rail networks which would take normal than longer to reach Syria or Mesopotamia or to reach the border with Russia.

Also read : What happened after the war at sea between Britain and Germany?


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